直接引语变间接引语“四注意”

时间:2012-05-24 09:23:52  来源:  作者:

本单元是学习直接引语和间接引语,有些同学过分拘泥于那些规则,不敢变通,有时造成很大的失误。所以建议同学们从语言实际运用的角度注意以下几个方面:

    (一).间接引语即为宾语从句。间接引语是从直接引语转换来的,结构上就是宾语从句。可从以下四种句型去掌握。

    1.直接引语是陈述句时,间接引语是由连词that引导的宾语从句,that常可省略。主句中的say to sb.常根据需要改为tell sb

    ①He said, “I’m a doctor.”→He said(that)he was a doctor.

②She said to me, “I’m studying English these days.”

→She told me that she was studying English those days .

    2.直接引语是一般问句时,间接引语是由whether(if)引导的宾语从句。主句的谓语动词多用ask

③She asked, “Are you preparing for it ?”

→She asked whether(if)we were preparing for it .

    如果问句是表示建议,可用动词suggestadvise加宾语从句或适当结构来完成。

    ④“Shall we meet at the theatre?”he said.

    →He suggested that we should meet at the theatre.

    →He suggested our meeting at the theatre.

    3.直接引语是特殊问句时,间接引语为原来连接代间(副词)引导的宾语从句。

⑤He asked,“Which one do you like best

→He asked which one I liked best .

    4.直接引语为祈使句时,变成“ask /tell/order等动词+宾词+to不定式。如直接引语是let引起的祈使句,改为间接引语用“should+动词原形

⑥He said,“Get everything ready in two hours.”

→He asked us to get everything ready in two hours.

⑦Tom said, “Let’s have a cup of coffee.”

→Tom said that we should have a cup of coffee.

    ()时态转化中的不变。

    1.直接引语若表示的是客观事实或真理,变为间接引语时时态不变。

⑧The teacher said to the pupils, “The earth is round.”

→The teacher told the pupils that the earth is round.

    2.当引语中有表示某一具体的过去的时间的状语,谓语动词的时态情况不需要作调整。

⑨My father said to me ,“I was born in 1945.”

→My father told me that he was born in 1945.

    ()其它方面转化中的不变

    如直接引语要变为间接引语,转述发生在当天、当地的事,直接引语中的come here, tomorrow, this morning, today, yesterday等不必随着改变。

10.He said ,“I’ll come here this evening.”

→He said he would come here this evening.

11.This morning he said ,“I’m leaving for Beijing tomorrow.”

→This morning he said that he was leaving for Beijing tomorrow.

    ()结合实际,灵活使用。

    学习语法要结合实际,提高运用语言的实际能力。直接引语变间接引语也要看情况,做到用适当的表达方式准确引述原话。请看下例:如果设A为听者,BC为第三者,可根据转述者和听者的不同,分别转述为如下的间接引语。

    12.He said,“You are in Class Two.”

       →He said that I was in Class Two.(ABC转述)

       →He said that you were in Class Two.(BCA转述)

       →He said that hehe-Awas in Class Two.(BCCB转述)

    如果说话者转述自己的话,人称也不需变化。

13.I said to her, “I have done my best.”

→I told her that I had done my best.

    同时,在变化时直接引语中有多种句型时,要根据实际灵活地运用,这样英语的表达才能更准确。

14.He said, “Will you do it ?”and I said ,“Yes .”

→He asked if I would do it and I said that I would.